Object: stone shelters

Possibilities for building with stone without bonds begin with the wall, which delimits, joins, limits, leads or protects and inherently chooses the media: it permits the wind to blow through, but not the passage of animals; these are chosen by size and character. The most interesting examples of architecture are shelters, standing from Scotland to Palestine and Spain to Greece, but they can be found elsewhere as well. Shelters can be built only for bottles or bread or a herd of horses, whereby differences are immense.

The most elementary are wall constructions: the wall serves for delimiting, enclosing, directing or bridging. A special type of wall is the supporting wall, which forms terraces. There are even walls against diseases: in Provance there is a wall against the plague.

Special objects are traps and contrivances for hunting and wells. Even bridges are built in the dry-wall technique.

Shelters are of course the most interesting: from those built for a single person, to those for the protection of a whole herd. They are single or two-floored. Shelters are built for immediate or temporary use, they can offer permanent protection and create whole towns.

Today shelters are seldom used as they were previously: in Puglia they are still being built. In Switzerland stone shelters are occasionally built for dwelling, but mainly for storage, i.e. also for cooling milk. Despite the high culture of stone shelters, their architecture is today a memory of our grandfathers' heZritage.

Stone shelters can be found from Scotland to Morocco and Spain to Greece, and probably in numerous other places too. They are given various names with mainly local character. The most widespread names are:

1 barraca de vinya in Catalonia, ranging to Valencia and even further South or into Spain's interior;

2 el bombo is limited to the surroundings of Tomelloso in the La Mancha province in Spain;

3 bunja is a building in Dalmatia and some islands in the hinterland of Šibenik, Croatia;

4 cabane has many local names in places all over in France;

5 caprile is the smallest group of shelters on the island of Elba and other nearby islands in the Tyrennean Sea;

6 clochan, still used for sheltering sheep and goats, stand on the Dingle peninsula in Ireland;

7 crot or scele stand in Graubuenden, Switzerland;

8 girna is because of their remoteness the most numerous examples of shelters in Malta;

9 hiška is a shelter in the Karst region, mostly in Slovenia;

10 kažun is the architecture from the Istrian peninsula, on the island of Krk it is known as komarda, Croatia;

11 mantarah or viewing tower can be found in Palestine;

12 nawamis is corbelled construction, in use as tomb, in Sinai, Egypt;

13 pagliaddiu or pailleur on Corsica is angular, while barracun is circular.

14 pineta sometimes written with double 'n' or double 't' is a shelter in Sardinia, Italy;

15 pont de bestiar is built shelter in Menorca, Spain;

16 trullo stands independently, in farmsteads or forms towns in Puglia, Italy;

17 twlc crwn is circular sty for pigs (twlc mochyn) or goose-pen in Wales, United Kingdom

18 weinbergshaeuschen is watching hut in Western Germany


Select object:
by object:

1 barraca, Spain

2 bombo, Spain

3 bunja,trim Croatia

4 cabane, France

5 caprile, Italy

6 clochan, Ireland

7 crot/scele, Switzerland

8 girna, Malta

9 hiska, Italy

9 hiska, Slovenia

10 kazun, Croatia

10 komarda, Croatia

11 mantarah, Palestine

12 nawamis, Egypt

13 pagliaddiu, Corse

14 pineta,

15 pont de bestiar, Spain

3 trim, bunja, Croatia

16 trullo,

17 twlc mochyn,

18 weinbergshaeuschen, Germany

by country:

Croatia, bunja, kazun, komarda, trim

Germany, weinbergshaeuschen

France, cabane

Ireland, clochan

Italy, trullo, caprile, pineta, hiška

Malta: girna

Palestine, mantarah

Slovenia, hiška

Spain, barraca, pont de bestiar, el bombo

Switzerland, crot / scele

United Kingdom, twlc mochyn

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