for building with stone without bonds begin with the wall,
which delimits, joins, limits, leads or protects and inherently
chooses the media: it permits the wind to blow through, but
not the passage of animals; these are chosen by size and character.
The most interesting examples of architecture are shelters,
standing from Scotland to Palestine and Spain to Greece,
but they can be found elsewhere as well. Shelters can be built
only for bottles or bread or a herd of horses, whereby differences
most elementary are wall constructions: the wall serves for
delimiting, enclosing, directing or bridging. A special type
of wall is the supporting wall, which forms terraces. There
are even walls against diseases: in Provance there is a wall
against the plague.
objects are traps and contrivances for hunting and wells.
Even bridges are built in the dry-wall technique.
are of course the most interesting: from those built for a
single person, to those for the protection of a whole herd.
They are single or two-floored. Shelters are built for
immediate or temporary use, they can offer permanent protection
and create whole towns.
shelters are seldom used as they were previously: in Puglia
they are still being built. In Switzerland stone shelters
are occasionally built for dwelling, but mainly for storage,
i.e. also for cooling milk. Despite the high culture of stone
shelters, their architecture is today a memory of our grandfathers'
shelters can be found from Scotland to Morocco and Spain to
Greece, and probably in numerous other places too. They are
given various names with mainly local character. The most
widespread names are:
barraca de vinya in Catalonia, ranging to Valencia and
even further South or into Spain's interior;
el bombo is limited to the surroundings of Tomelloso in
the La Mancha province in Spain;
bunja is a building in Dalmatia and some islands in the
hinterland of Šibenik, Croatia;
cabane has many local names in places all over in France;
caprile is the smallest group of shelters on the island
of Elba and other nearby islands in the Tyrennean Sea;
clochan, still used for sheltering sheep and goats, stand
on the Dingle peninsula in Ireland;
crot or scele stand in Graubuenden, Switzerland;
girna is because of their remoteness the most numerous
examples of shelters in Malta;
hiška is a shelter in the Karst region, mostly in Slovenia;
kažun is the architecture from the Istrian peninsula,
on the island of Krk it is known as komarda, Croatia;
mantarah or viewing tower can be found in Palestine;
nawamis is corbelled construction, in use as tomb, in
pagliaddiu or pailleur on Corsica is angular, while barracun
sometimes written with double
'n' or double 't' is a shelter in Sardinia, Italy;
pont de bestiar is built shelter in Menorca, Spain;
trullo stands independently, in farmsteads or forms towns
in Puglia, Italy;
17 twlc crwn is circular sty for pigs (twlc mochyn)
or goose-pen in Wales, United Kingdom
weinbergshaeuschen is watching hut in Western Germany